### Efficient FPGA implementation of Recursive Least Square adaptive filter using non-restoring division algorithm

#### Abstract

In this paper, Recursive Least Square (RLS) and Affine Projection (AP) adaptive filters are designed using Xilinx System Generator and implemented on the Spartan6 xc6slx16-2csg324 FPGA platform. FPGA platform utilizes the non-restoring division algorithm and the COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC) division algorithm to perform the division task of the RLS and AP adaptive filters. The Non-restoring division algorithm demonstrates efficient performance in terms of convergence speed and signal-to-noise ratio. In contrast, the CORDIC division algorithm requires 31 cycles for division initialization, whereas the non-restoring algorithm initializes division in just one cycle. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed filters, a set of ten ECG records from the BIT-MIT database is used to test their ability to remove Power Line Interference (PLI) noise from the ECG signal. The proposed adaptive filters are compared with various adaptive algorithms in terms of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), convergence speed, residual noise, steady-state Mean Square Error (MSE), and complexity.

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